Headwall Photonics Blog

Community Partnership in Action!

Posted by David Bannon on Thu, Apr 28, 2016

Great companies can serve not only as an economic engine for customers, employees, suppliers, and business partners but also as a strong community partner based on how that company integrates itself into the communities in which it operates.

So many times, employees follow the same morning routines to get to work – a cup of coffee on the go, a 25 minute commute to work, pull into the parking lot, and do your thing every day. But picking your head up and looking at the community and the surrounding neighborhood as you go to work every day reveals a lot and helps to define where we can have a positive social impact as a company and as an individual.   This perspective helps us to understand our community’s strengths, resources, cultural diversity, as well as a heightened awareness of community need.

community_partnership.jpgA cornerstone of strong, thriving companies is to establish a brand as a good community partner; defining a commitment to social responsibility and community philanthropy needs to be more engrained in the cultural fabric and strategies of companies.

As an element of our FY16 success plan, Headwall has undertaken a new community service initiative with our employees. A group of employees conducted site visits to a number of community service organizations. As a result, Headwall is working to support Our Father’s House, a local non-profit organization based in Fitchburg that is providing shelter and transitional services to homeless men, women, and children in the community.

Above, Headwall employees form a “production” line to package hygiene products for Our Father’s House in Fitchburg.

 

Tags: Fitchburg, community partnership, Volunteering, employee activities

Landmine Detection Using Hyperspectral Imaging

Posted by Christopher Van Veen on Wed, Apr 20, 2016

 

 

When you see how rapidly the use of drones for scientific research has risen, you first conclude that it's all about precision agriculture and climatology. To be sure, those are trendsetting applications when it comes to using hyperspectral imaging sensors aboard UAVs. But over at the University of Bristol, two scientists are leading a team focused on 'finding a better way' to detect the presence of landmines that kill or maim thousands of people annually. With around 100 million landmines underneath the ground globally, traditional means of finding and eliminating them would take about 1,000 years and cost upwards of $30 billion according to some estimates.

Find A Better Way is a UK-based NFP founded by famed footballer Sir Bobby Charlton. Despite his heroic sporting achievements, Sir Bobby is now forging a legacy outside of football through his determination to champion the cause of landmine detection and elimination. He witnessed the destruction caused by landmines on visits to Cambodia and Bosnia as a Laureus Sport for Good Ambassador. He founded Find A Better Way after recognizing that research and development held the key to making the major changes necessary to allow humanitarian teams to rid the world of the threat of landmines.

"We want to do something that very quickly delivers a step-change in capability while reducing overall human risk involved with finding and eliminating landmines," said Dr. Tom Scott of the University of Bristol. He along with Dr. John Day are pairing their advanced UAV with small and lightweight hyperspectral imaging sensors from Headwall Photonics to 'see' with a specificity and resolution unheard of only a few short years ago. "These drones can be autonomously deployed to fly over a landmine area and provide high-resolution images that allow us to reconstruct the 3-D terrain with very high accuracy," said Dr. Scott. With all the landmines across the world, tactical deployment of numerous low-flying drones is going to win the day over expensive satellites or high-flying aircraft. In order to meet this objective, the package needs to be simultaneously affordable, light, and suited to its mission. There is a vast amount of integration and testing work involved before the first meaningful flights can be flown. Recognizing this, Headwall is assuming much of this work so that users can compress this time-to-deployment significantly. Because the use of drones for scientific research is still in its infancy, misconceptions abound. Acquiring a UAV and slapping a hyperspectral sensor to it without first considering all the variables is a recipe for disaster. This holds true whether the mission is landmine detection or precision agriculture. More commonly, other instruments such as LiDAR and GPS are part of the payload as well. The end result is a carefully balanced exercise in aerodynamics, optics, electrics, and data-collection that companies such as Headwall are able to manage.

The human eye can only respond to wavelengths between roughly 390-700nm. Many of the reflective 'signatures' given off by plants and chemicals fall outside that range. For example, the Nano-Hyperspec sensor used by the Bristol team operates in what is called the 'Visible-Near-Infrared' range of 400-1000nm (called 'VNIR' for short). In that range, the sensor is 'seeing' with an extraordinarily high degree of specificity and resolution and far beyond what a human could discern. Indeed, these sensors are collecting an astounding amount of spectral data on a per-pixel basis, resulting in 'data cubes' many Gigabytes in size. Armed with spectral libraries that faithfully characterize the specifics of the terrain below, scientists can match the known library information with the collected airborne data and make quite accurate calls on what's what.

The use of drones has accelerated this scientific effort because of two factors: First, they are affordable and easy to deploy on a tactical basis. One can be packed in a Range Rover and deployed almost anywhere in minutes whereas aircraft and satellites are, by nature, constricted, inflexible, and costly. This is not to say that aircraft and satellites will be supplanted by UAVs. There is valuable image data that can be collected using these high-flying platforms, and the overall knowledge base shared by the scientific community is made much more complete when all these assets are used in a synergistic fashion. Indeed, hyperspectral imaging was once the province of high-flying reconnaissance planes and satellites...neither of which could ever be used economically by university scientists. But the ubiquitous drone--a bane to some and a blessing to others--is the perfect platform from which to launch these exploratory efforts. "We're adding a bit more science to the UAV payload now," says Dr. Day. "We're starting to look at the spectrum of light and the colors of light that are coming off the minefield and using that data to find where the landmines are."

UAVs and drones seem to get media attention for all the wrong reasons, which is exactly why efforts by the esteemed team at the University of Bristol are to be applauded for developing a 'Better Way' to solve some of our toughest challenges. Hyperspectral imaging sensors can 'see' even beyond the VNIR range of interest to Dr. Day and Dr. Scott. The Shortwave-Infrared (SWIR) range starts near where VNIR leaves off, covering around 950-2500nm. The presence of certain chemicals, minerals and of course plant photosynthesis will become visible to sensors like these. Indeed, a broadband sensor package that covers the VNIR and SWIR range (400-2500nm) is particularly useful because it basically collects everything a scientific research effort might wish to see.

There are two key factors about hyperspectral imaging that are worth noting. The first is that the technology depends on 'reflected light.' The sensor is basically looking at how sunlight reflects off certain materials. Plant fluorescence, for example, has a particular 'spectral signature' that a sensor can understand. Obviously, this means an airborne hyperspectral sensor depends on a healthy amount of solar illumination and certainly is useless at night. But Headwall's sensors are designed to collect precise image data even under less-than-ideal solar conditions (cloud cover, or low angles, for example). The second factor is having a wide field of view. The sensor obviously can 'see' directly beneath the line of flight, but being able to do so off to the wide edges of the flight pattern makes the mission more efficient. Batteries being what they are, optimizing the flight duration by capturing a wide swath of land is obviously beneficial. This benefit is seen in the precise optical layout used by Headwall in the construction of each sensor.

Crop science, climatology, geology, and even the inspection of infrastructure such as pipelines and rail bed depend on imaging sensors like those produced by Headwall. Hyperspectral sensors depend on 'motion,' since they basically collect images slice by slice as the UAV flies over the scene. The combination of all of these high-resolution 'slices' comprise what is known as a 'data cube,' which is pored over by scientists during post-processing. Of course, the hardware capturing these images represents about half the story. The other half can be found in the software that makes sense out of reams of spectral image data that all needs to be 'geo-tagged' and orthorectified. First and foremost, scientists need answers; the data (and the sensor collecting the data) are simply means to an end. When you go to your local DIY or Lowe's or Home Depot, you really aren't buying a drill; you're going there to buy a hole.

But is all that image data really needed? Some efforts seek to cut corners by using less-capable 'multispectral' sensors that cover only a few bands rather than the hundreds of bands covered with hyperspectral. Using crop science as an example, a multispectral sensor might miss the telltale signature of an invasive disease on a tree canopy while hyperspectral will most certainly catch it. And that can mean the difference between saving a coffee bean harvest or a valuable wine-vineyard crop.


 

Tags: hyperspectral, Remote Sensing, UAS, UAV, University of Bristol

Data Fusion: A New Capability for the Remote Sensing Community

Posted by Christopher Van Veen on Tue, Mar 01, 2016

We’re seeing a tremendous increase in the number of airborne deployments for our hyperspectral imaging sensors. To a large degree, the trend toward smaller and more affordable UAVs is giving the remote sensing community more flexibility to undertake more missions to capture meaningful environmental data. From wine-grape vineyards in northern California to coffee bean plantations in South America, the precision agriculture community is embracing packaged ‘UAS’ offerings that combine a UAV matched to the payload it needs to carry.

hypercore_illustration.jpgCollecting meaningful, actionable data for a precision agriculture scientist can mean the difference between a healthy harvest and a disastrous one. Depending on the wavelength, the sensors will spot indices indicative of diseases, irrigation deficits, crop stress, and more. An affordable UAV thus takes the place of much more expensive manned aircraft flights. The financial savings notwithstanding, this new system can be hand launched and retrieved and basically deployed wherever and whenever (with adherence to all local aviation rules and regulations).

One trend we’re seeing at Headwall is the integration of multiple sensors, each having their own specific streams of data. For example, the payload might comprise a VNIR (400-1000nm) sensor along with a SWIR (1000-2500nm) instrument, but might also include LiDAR and typically a GPS/IMU. A Fiber-Optic Downwelling Irradiance Sensor (FODIS) is also often used to measure and collect data relative to changes in solar illumination.

Obviously, payload restrictions determine what the craft can lift and for how long. But it is a balance between choosing an affordable UAV that is small and light while understanding that it might not be able to carry all the instruments that a remote sensing mission might demand. Optimizing Size, Weight & Power (SWaP) is the guiding principle for missions involving UAVs. There are many fixed-wing and multi-rotor UAVs on the market that all specify their payload restrictions and flight durations.

The goal of any remote sensing activity is to see the unseen, and then make sense of the data during post processing. Because this data leads to important agricultural decisions, it’s crucial to synthesize the data from each instrument. The term for this is data fusion, and Headwall has just unveiled a new product called HyperCore™ that handles this important task. As the UAV flies its mission, data streams from the hyperspectral sensors, GPS/IMU, LiDAR, and other instruments are all collected on HyperCore’s 500GB drive for easy download (via Gig-E) later. HyperCore includes the most-used connections, including two Gig-E ports, a CameraLink port, power, and two I/O ports.


 

Tags: Airborne, Remote Sensing, UAS, UAV

Hyperspectral Imaging Technology a New Frontier for KAUST in Saudi Arabia

Posted by Christopher Van Veen on Thu, Oct 08, 2015

King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) is a public research institution in Saudi Arabia. By any measure it is a very young university, founded in 2009. But in that short span of time it has rapidly grown to accumulate an astounding number of research and citation records.

Being a science and technology university, KAUST focuses on traditional subjects such as math, electrical engineering, and computer science. KAUST is already well versed in spectroscopy, having a burgeoning lab full of instruments that can peer into the chemical underpinnings of minerals, plants, and crops. The lab is outfitted with spectroscopy, chromatography, and mass spectometry instruments tasked with learning more about trace metals analysis, wet chemistry, and surface analysis.

But one area of study is on pace to become its most popular: Earth and Environmental Sciences. Here, students and faculty pore over ways to use new technology in learning more about precision agriculture, water resources, and atmospheric conditions. This takes spectroscopy out of the lab and into the air, specifically using drones and UAVs.

KAUST_Nano_1_with_caption_small.jpg

Spectroscopy takes several different forms, but multispectral and hyperspectral are of primary interest within the scientific research community. The primary difference between the two is that hyperspectral imaging technology provides complete spectral information for every pixel in the scene...literally hundreds of bands. Comparatively, multispectral will only detect a handful of bands. In other words, it can mean the difference between discovering an invasive disease in a crop field or vineyard and missing it altogether. The Headwall sensors have a wide field of view (FOV) coupled with aberration-corrected optics, meaning that image data is as crisp and precise along the edges of the FOV as it is directly underneath the flight path. More data is collected for each mission, making the data-collection project more efficient. With battery life being key, efficiency matters.  Armed with spectral libraries that define the chemical composition of everything the sensor ‘sees,’ scientists have the ability to look well beyond what is actually ‘visible.’ 

Matthew McCabe, a professor at KAUST, recognizes the value of real-time environmental analysis in the work his Hydrology and Land Observation (HALO) Group does. “We are interested in exploring hyperspectral sensing to better understand plant health and function, particularly as relates to agricultural settings,” said McCabe. “The capacity to retrieve information on plant health is of interest not just for the obvious and important monitoring of crop state, but also in better constraining coupled water-energy-carbon models of vegetation systems.” According to McCabe, these models are generally poorly constrained so a system that enables for investigating plant health and condition in near real-time is of much interest. 

Already familiar with less precise multispectral instruments, McCabe is now investing in airborne hyperspectral sensors that see more and can deliver vast amounts of spectral data. “While we already employ multispectral sensors covering bands known to inform upon plant systems, it is the capacity to further expand our knowledge of plant spectral response that we are most interested in,” said McCabe. “Determining new spectral relationships in plant behavior and response is an area of research that hyperspectral imaging can really drive.”

KAUST_Nano_2_with_caption_small.jpg

The field of crop science is a key deployment for hyperspectral imaging. Here, McCabe chose Headwall’s Nano-Hyperspec sensor that covers the core Visible/Near-Infrared (VNIR) range from 400nm to 1000nm. Most anything that a crop scientist wants to ‘see’ will be found in that VNIR range. “We wanted a very precise spectral imager that operated in this important VNIR range,” said McCabe. “We needed to ‘see’ spectral information for every pixel within the field of view, and we knew that Headwall’s Nano-Hyperspec had very precise edge-to-edge imaging performance that would optimize the flight efficiency of our UAV.

With the newly acquired Nano-Hyperspec mounted aboard a KAUST-engineered quadcopter, McCabe and his team will set off to learn about plant-specific spectral-traits that provide direct insight into health and productivity functions. “This is one of our research goals,” said McCabe. “Hyperspectral sensing and analysis allows us to explore this exciting area of research in ways that multispectral cannot.”

Choosing a sensor and deploying it properly on a UAV is a challenge, especially since the technology is still relatively young. “We needed a sensor package that matched our UAV,” said McCabe. That meant it had to be lightweight and small, and it had to have integrated data storage for the many gigabytes of spectral data pouring into the sensor while aloft. The Headwall solution added a GPS/IMU and full software control for an overall package that put McCabe in the air far sooner than he’d otherwise expect. “Partnering with Headwall gave us months of headway in terms of getting in the air and collecting great data,” said McCabe.

And why Headwall? “We knew the company was a strong and well respected brand in the spectral sensing domain, with a long history of product excellence,” said McCabe. “We had researched a number of competing solutions, but Headwall turned out to be the most professional and competent among them.” McCabe also noted that numerous colleagues and scientists were currently using Headwall hyperspectral instruments with great success.

Moving forward, what are some of the exciting plans in the area of environmental analysis using Headwall’s hyperspectral system? “Our initial research will be focused on the indirect retrieval of plant pigments such as chlorophyll and carotenoids,” said McCabe. This spectral data will provide information on water use and stress condition of agricultural systems. “Ultimately, we are interested in better understanding plant water use through transpiration, but there are also opportunities for better constraining crop-yield through routine spatial sampling that is available when coupled to a UAV,” noted McCabe. “Hyperspectral sensing allows for a number of innovative ways to explore these ideas. But there are also clear opportunities beyond crop science. Indeed, we see applications across many of the multi-disciplinary research areas we are engaged in.” Interestingly but not surprisingly, McCabe is thinking well beyond UAVs: “We also have active projects in satellite validation and expect to engage with collaborators on both small and larger scale crop stress monitoring and even disease mapping using sensors mounted aboard L.E.O. commercial satellites.”

Of course, Headwall will be there when the time comes.

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Tags: Remote Sensing, UAS

We're Giving Drones a Good Name

Posted by Christopher Van Veen on Wed, Oct 07, 2015

Drones seem to be in the news for all the wrong reasons. The media reminds us that they're nothing but nuisances: peeking at people, crashing into stadiums, hovering over the White House, and causing airliners to take evasive maneuvers. The FAA in this country is taking an active stance on the safe operation of drones, and the topic is being explored elsewhere around the globe. What everyone recognizes is that it's a world full of both promise and uncertainty. Indeed, the automobile was born under the same set of circumstances!

Having just returned from a week-long conference in Reno, Nevada, my post today is meant to emphasize the good work drones can do. The biggest among them is precision agriculture, where a drone outfitted with the right instrumentation can hover over orchards and vineyards and spot telltale signs of diseases that aren't readily seen from the ground. Monitoring irrigation levels and fertilizer effectiveness are two other key applications, as are climatology, pipeline monitoring, and geology.

Two makers of UAVs present at the conference are Headwall customers. PrecisionHawk builds a fixed-wing system while ServiceDrones offers a multi-rotor craft. There are reasons for using either. The amount of room you have to take off and land is one consideration; the overall battery life (flight duration) is another; and payload capacity is a third. The key task is to match everything to the mission, which is why integration is so important.

All told, the packaged technology of drones and sensors allows researchers to 'see' the invisible and learn more about the environment. Primarily this is territory largely inaccessible by any other ground-based means, which puts the risk to humans (and airliners) at the lower end of the scale. The use of drones has exploded for two primary reasons. Chief among them is affordability, which positions them much more favorably compared with manned fixed-wing aircraft. Second is ease of use. Drones are now more 'mainstream' than ever, and their ability to carry reasonable instrumentation payloads allows them to do this kind of scientific 'remote sensing.'

Instruments such as hyperspectral sensors are getting smaller, lighter, and more affordable. With them, scientists can now unlock hidden secrets and spot trends by analyzing very detailed, data-rich images.  We are helping to create a 'new set of eyes' for the scientific community. The drones themselves become a vital 'delivery system,' and the pairing of these technologies is giving birth to the kind of conference such as the ASPRS Mapping event in Reno. It was a combination of test flying and presentations, with the flying happening in gorgeous Palomino Valley located about 35 miles north of Reno.

Through it all, safety was paramount during the flying demonstrations. FAA inspectors were with us every step of the way to make sure that all the programmed flight plans were adhered to. Each drone had 'N' registration numbers, as a regular aircraft would. This is serious business with huge upside potential for geologists, crop scientists, the petroleum industry, and for environmentalists. It pays to understand the regulations and work within them, because this whole business is a 'new frontier' for everyone. And while the term 'Drone' conjures up a rather negative image, the more proper description is, "Unmanned Airborne System," or 'UAS' for short. These truly are 'systems' because they pair a flying machine (either fixed-wing or multi-rotor) with instruments they carry.

And what kind of instruments? For precision agriculture, a hyperspectral sensor covering the Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR) range of 400-1000nm will spot disease conditions on tree canopies. With entire economies depending on crops (hello, Florida citrus!), the ability to spot tree-borne diseases and other plant-stress situations is massively beneficial. First, the instruments are precise and can spot the 'invisible.' Second, the drones allow for the rapid and complete coverage of remote areas that might take days or weeks to map. And perhaps most telling, some disease conditions will only be visible from the top down rather than from the bottom up. An inspector on a ladder under a tree will likely miss something that the drone spots, and this can mean the difference between a bountiful harvest and a financial catastrophe. Any high-value crop (think citrus, wine grapes, pistachios, coffee beans, walnuts, etc.) needs this kind of imaging oversight. Our Nano-Hyperspec is extremely popular for this kind of work.

When it comes to airborne work, one of the most desired attributes of a hyperspectral sensor is a wide field of view. Simply put, the sensor needs to deliver crisp hyperspectral data at the edges of its field of view just as it would directly underneath the flight path. The wider and more sharp the field of view, the more efficient the flight path can be. And when it comes to drones, battery life determines the overall flight duration. So a hyperspectral sensor having an aberration-corrected wide field of view can cover more ground for a given flight envelope. More image data is thus collected for every flight, making the research project very efficient.

In addition to hyperspectral sensors, drones will also need a GPS to tie the incoming spectral data to its exact geographic location. Another frequently asked-for instrument is LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging Sensor), which provides some elevation detail that is paired with the hyperspectral data. Obviously the combination of all these separate instruments makes for a payload that consumes valuable weight and space, and thus out of the realm of possibility for today's new breed of hand-launched UAVs. With that in mind, my company (Headwall Photonics, Inc.) takes time to engineer and 'integrate' the sensor so that it is as small and as light as possible. Combining the data storage inside the sensor is one way; direct-attaching the GPS is another. The connecting cables you don't need mean weight you don't have to lift!

Finally, conferences like the ASPRS event in Reno are places where people can learn. Understanding the challenges and potential integration pitfalls is what we at Headwall were there to convey, and our message was very well received. The mistake we all want to avoid is having users blinded by the promise of airborne hyperspectral imaging, dashing off and grabbing any affordable UAV and bolting instruments onto it. For one, such an approach is dangerously naive. Second, the time needed to integrate everything is practically always underestimated. And third, it becomes a very costly endeavor when the price of time is factored in.

At Headwall, although our business is the production of the industry's best hyperspectral imaging sensors, we understand integration issues better than anyone. We're here to help navigate the process and get the scientific research community in the air faster, doing all the good things 'drones' can do.

Tags: hyperspectral, Remote Sensing, Sensors, UAS, VNIR, UAV

Spectral Imaging Solves Mystery of Stolen Books by Suicidal Librarian

Posted by Christopher Van Veen on Tue, Jul 21, 2015

Multi-Million Dollar Theft Of National Heritage, Followed By International Intrigue, Suicide, And An Explosion Injuring Dozens...

Not Hollywood But … Headwall’s Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors Provide Forensic Analysis Help Solve the Mystery & Repatriate a Stolen Rare Book!

The_Book

David Walter Corson is curator of the History of Science collection at the Cornell University Library. Through years of study and procurement, the Cornell collection...35,000 volumes in all...has some esteemed and cherished works written by Sir Isaac Newton, and others, and represents the world’s most extensive university collection on the evolution of scientific thought and research over the few centuries.

One of the books in this vast collection at Cornell was simply known as the ‘Oculus,' written by Christopher Scheiner in 1619. Scheiner was a brilliant geometer, physicist and astronomer, who developed theories of optics which later formed the basis for the development of lenses. Schiener’s book showed that the retina is the seat of vision, and it was a recognized treasure that Cornell was very pleased to have acquired in 1999 from Jonathan Hill, the preeminent New York-based bookseller of rare books and manuscripts. However, it was five years later that the Scheiner Book was reported to have been stolen from the National Library of Sweden, along with around 55 other notable works worth millions.

Unbeknownst to Jonathan Hill or to David Corson, the Library of Sweden theft was a daring one carried out by an employee of the National Library by the name of Anders Burius.  Burius sold the works he stole between the years 1995 and 2004 to German auction house Ketterer Kunst. Burius was subsequently arrested and confessed in 2004. However, while free on bail in Sweden, Mr. Burius attempted suicide by slitting his wrists and then cutting the gas line in his apartment. The explosion finished the deed, flattening the building and injuring scores of neighbors.

The story is widely known throughout Sweden and is recounted in The History Blog, http://www.thehistoryblog.com/archives/17824.

And, yes, it is also the subject of television mini-series.

Where do Headwall’s hyperspectral imaging sensors fit in?

Initially, Headwall’s spectral imaging analysis was focused on the examination of spectral enhancement techniques on Cornell’s extensive collection of Lincoln documents such as the Gettysburg Address, the Emancipation Proclamation, the 13th Amendment to the US Constitution, Lincoln Executive Mansion Letters, and others.

book_blog_image_1

Studying historically significant treasures like Cornell’s Lincoln Collection must be done with great care. The Hippocratic oath for physicians (and, by extension, to curators and conservators) somewhat loosely states, 'First Do No Harm.' Indeed, any sort of spectral imaging must not involve harsh lighting, heat or be otherwise 'invasive.' Assured that it was a safe form of scientific analysis, Cornell teamed with Headwall to carefully image some artifacts, art work, and rare books that can be truly described as priceless treasures of cultural heritage.

Now back to Scheiner’s Oculus book … As Sweden worked with Interpol to track down these stolen treasures, David Corson of Cornell became aware of the book theft and began working with the FBI to determine if the Cornell version of Scheiner’s Oculus was in fact stolen from the National Library of Sweden.

To make a forensic determination, some scientific analysis was necessary which led to Headwall's expertise in hyperspectral imaging and the use of Headwall’s Hyperspec VNIR and SWIR sensors to analyze the book. Headwall’s non-invasive hyperspectral imaging technique yielded a highly resolved spectral and spatial datacube that allowed application engineers to analyze component and constituent material differences in the book such as color change, deterioration, and alterations, as well as the ability to identify disguised text and “under drawings” not visible to the naked eye.

book_blog_image_2

"Your analytic techniques were exactly what we needed," explained Corson. "The totality of the circumstantial evidence that emerged from Headwall's study of The Scheiner Book is, indeed, what ultimately convinced us to 'repatriate' the volume." Through the use of data collected by Headwall’s VNIR and SWIR hyperspectral sensors, Janette Wilson of Headwall’s technical sales team undertook a rigorous PCA approach (Principal Component Analysis) that was able to yield definitive proof that faint, non-visible markings on the book were correlated to the National Library of Sweden’s catalogue system.

"We had independently asked the National Library of Sweden whether there were any unique bookplates or similar identification devices that the library might have used in the past that we should look for," recalled Corson. But there was no apparent evidence of previous bookplates in Cornell's acquired copy, aside from the one Cornell added themselves. But spectral imaging revealed remnants in the corner sections of the front pastedown (a reasonable location for a bookplate) of a previous label. Corson thus had his first bit of evidence: "This finding showed measured dimensions almost identical to those of a bookplate the National Library had told us was once used in their books!"

The challenge before Corson was compounded by the fact that the National Library could not accurately corroborate any of these findings after it was determined that all of its records had been destroyed. "The effect was as if the Library had never even had the titles in its holdings," recalled Corson. In any case, The National Library did send Corson two possible shelf marks for the Scheiner volume, based on their best recollection.  Hyperspectral imaging thus revealed that the sequence of 'marks’ were the same as those provided by the National Library.

In the end, hyperspectral imaging did indeed prove instrumental in uncovering findings previously unknown. “What is significant is that Headwall’s technique and approach can reveal definitive evidence in situations like these,” noted Corson. The technology readily adapts itself for use with paintings, maps, manuscripts, even non-flat artifacts.

Tags: forensics, Cornell University, artifacts, antiquities, Artwork

Hyperspectral Imaging Successfully Screens Cancer Tissue

Posted by Christopher Van Veen on Wed, Apr 29, 2015

Healthcare isn’t a new frontier when it comes to imaging, but hyperspectral technology is opening eyes and capturing spectacular, life-changing results.

Over the past several months and culminating in a very successful technical review in late February, a European collaborative project named HELICOID (HypErspectraL Imaging Cancer Detection) used Headwall’s hyperspectral sensors to discriminate between healthy and cancerous brain tissues. The focus on brain cancer is especially meaningful because this tissue—almost more than any other type of cancer—can resemble the normal surrounding tissue. This makes it difficult to isolate under normal imaging techniques.  Indeed, while the HELICOID project focused on brain cancer, hyperspectral imaging will be beneficial for breast and lung cancer as well.

With technical resources out of the Headwall BVBA office near Brussels and with our application partner in Spain, HELICOID, the Belgium-led medical collaborative, worked closely together to develop the technical solution for the spectral imaging sensor.

Early results derived with the Headwall Hyperspec imaging system are impressive as the hyperspectral sensor system can  “potentially accelerate cancer diagnosis and improve proper cancer removal ultimately saving lives” as reported by Lung Cancer News Today.

One of the hallmarks of hyperspectral imaging is its ability to identify objects or disease conditions based on the chemical composition of tissue within the field of view of the sensor.  By working closely with medical collaborators, the sensors were ‘tuned’ to the precise spectral features of interest that scientists are looking to find. By offering a precise definition of the boundaries of the cancer tissue in real-time, hyperspectral imaging can potentially accelerate cancer diagnosis and improve proper cancer removal. Surgeons can thus remove exactly what needs to be removed while leaving healthy tissue untouched.

“Hyperspectral imaging technology holds enormous promise for medical applications and, as the leader in spectral imaging solutions, Headwall will continue to make significant contributions to advancing industry capabilities,” said Chris Van Veen of Headwall’s Marketing group.

Tags: Cancer Detection

Hyperspectral Takes Old Maps Into New Territory

Posted by Christopher Van Veen on Thu, Mar 26, 2015

Late in 2014, Headwall sponsored a successful event at London’s Natural History Museum. The purpose of the gathering was to introduce curators and preservationists to the advantages and capabilities of hyperspectral imaging. Professionals in this field understand that the treasures under their control...paintings, documents, and artifacts...need to be preserved using the most advanced techniques available. Preservation largely means having an excellent understanding of the chemical composition of the underlying materials used to create the treasures. And what the eye cannot see, hyperspectral imaging can.

The Bodleian Library (Oxford, UK) has been an acknowledged pioneer with respect to the use of spectral imaging technology. While newer than other imaging techniques, hyperspectral is relatively affordable and provides a wealth of image data that experts can pore through. With this data, the overall body of knowledge is exponentially increased on treasures having enormous historical prestige and significance. The identification of specific materials, inks, pigments, and substrates can help determine when (and perhaps even where) a document or artifact was created. Everything a hyperspectral sensor sees can be categorized with respect to its chemical signature, or ‘fingerprint.’ The color ‘Yellow’ resonates a certain way to the eye, but spectral imaging can discern the chemical composition of a particular ‘Yellow’ and match it to known spectral libraries. The results are clearly beneficial to the Bodleian, which is why the Library has taken great measure to partner with Headwall Photonics to implement systems geared specifically to what they'd like to see and learn.

BodleianTwo prized maps at The Bodleian...the 17th-Century Selden Map of China, and the medieval Gough Map of Britain...recently underwent precise analysis using Headwall’s hyperspectral sensor. The Gough Map in particular represents a mystery to Bodleian experts: when was it created, by whom, and why. By illuminating the map with non-invasive, non-destructive ‘cold’ lighting, the near infrared and shortwave infrared sensors collect a digital map of inks and materials. It even highlights features that were deliberately masked and others that simply faded or flaked away over time.

The Bodleian’s David Howell, an early advocate of spectral/chemical imaging and who helped spearhead Headwall’s Natural History Museum event, has been extremely pleased at the results seen thus far. In an interview with the BBC, Howell said that he was “blown away by the data that’s already coming out.” He noted that the technology first and foremost does not put the treasures at risk. The imaging illumination is non-destructive and the treasures themselves do not need to be removed from their climate-controlled premises.

Howell concluded with a plug for the promise of hyperspectral imaging technology: “Our biggest problem now is there’s just so much data to sort through to fully explore what we’ve uncovered!”

To read the BBC article on this exciting venture, click here.

Tags: hyperspectral imaging, artifacts, antiquities, Artwork, artwork preservation

Headwall Successfully Re-Certifies to ISO 9001

Posted by Christopher Van Veen on Tue, Feb 17, 2015

Manufacturing companies of any size must demonstrate to their customers that they are quality-driven organizations. This holds for products, processes, and procedures. The global economy demands this. Since its inception, Headwall recognized that ISO certification would be a core competitive differentiator. The Company set out to be judged against the rigorous ISO9001 standard and was rewarded with certification in 2008. Indeed, Headwall was one of the smallest manufacturing companies to be so certified.

Headwall ISO certificateEvery three years Headwall must undergo a recertification audit, and each time we have successfully demonstrated our adherence to the ISO standard. Our latest such audit with nqa-usa came this month, and we are very pleased and proud to say that we continue to be an ISO9001 organization. On the global stage, and with customers among the largest and best known, Headwall is recognized for having a level of thoroughness and discipline across the key areas of its business. This success translates into how our products are designed, how they are built, how corrective actions are identified and handled, how communications both internal and external are managed, and how procedures and processes are documented and then followed.

Achieving successful ISO9001 recertification is a proud moment for Headwall every three years, and we wanted to make mention of it here.
Tags: Headwall Photonics, ISO9001

Nano-Hyperspec...in the air and on the ground

Posted by Christopher Van Veen on Fri, Feb 06, 2015

Next week during Photonics West we’ll be demonstrating our very newest hyperspectral sensor: Nano-Hyperspec. We gave it that name because it’s small...exceptionally small. Think of a Rubik's Cube and you've got it. The market said it needed a robust, aberration-corrected hyperspectral sensor purpose-built for small, hand-launched UAVs. One perfect example is the X6 from the Aibotix division of Leica-Geosystems, a company with whom Headwall signed an agreement in late 2014. “There’s a confluence within the remote sensing marketplace,” said Headwall CEO David Bannon. “The attractiveness of affordable, easy to launch UAVs runs headlong into the need for perfectly matched sensor instruments that they can carry.” In conceiving Nano-Hyperspec, Headwall consolidated and integrated as much as possible to yield a small, performance-packed unit that even the smallest UAVs could easily carry.

“Ordinarily, a hyperspectral sensor talks to a separate computer in order to transfer large amounts of image data quickly,” noted Bannon. “But small UAVs don’t have the payload capacity to carry a separate data-processing unit and the cables they require.” So the first order of business was to put the data processing and storage technology into the sensor itself, which frees up space for other accessories. For proper image-data collection from a UAV, the hyperspectral sensor needs to work along with a GPS. Nano-Hyperspec was designed so that the GPS can attach directly to the housing, further saving weight and space. “Integrating these normally disparate pieces into an integrated whole is what the market continually tells us it needs,” noted Bannon. “All of this not only makes for a lightweight sensor package, but also allows for the addition of technology such as LiDAR, which itself is collecting valuable data for scientists to use.”

Nano Leica logoNano-Hyperspec focuses on the Visible and Near-Infrared spectral range (often referred to as ‘VNIR’) of 400-1000nm. “Much of what needs to be seen from a UAV is taken at slow speeds and low altitudes,” said Bannon. This can be precision agriculture, environmental monitoring, minerals and geology, or any of a number of other uses. But to a large degree, what becomes visible to a hyperspectral sensor between 400 and 1000nm can include the presence of disease conditions on a tree canopy where it otherwise might be invisible from below. “Entire economies depend on agriculture,” said Bannon. “If a low-flying UAV with our specially-tuned hyperspectral sensor can ‘see’ an invasive disease, our technology becomes vital rather than simply desired.”

One of the hallmarks of all Headwall sensor designs is aberration-correction. In simple terms, this means making sure that the sensor sees as crisply and clearly off to the edges of its field of view is as it does straight beneath the line of flight. The holographic diffraction grating embedded within each sensor is designed to make this so, by eliminating unwanted artifacts such as ‘keystone’ and ‘smile’ that are more pronounced off to the edges of the field of view. “In practical terms, it means that the sensor has a very wide field of view that is accurately represented,” said Bannon. A wider view means a more efficient flight path. In short, the UAV can cover more ground because it can accurately ‘see’ more ground. This is particularly crucial because UAVs are battery-powered; the objective is to maximize useful work in the limited time aloft. A wide view of the ground at exceptionally high spatial and spectral resolution allows this to be so.

holographic gratingsIt has been said that people buy holes, not drills. They basically have a problem that needs an answer. How they get their hole or derive their answer is an exercise in technology, economics, and speed. “We have a technical solution that is affordably priced,” said Bannon. The partnership with Leica-Geosystems helps. “Time-to-deploy is an exercise in economics and lost opportunity because real value can be derived the sooner the UAV/hyperspectral package is airborne and collecting useful data.”

Not lost on the remote-sensing community is this: many applications involve taking image data from the ground rather than from a UAV. Nano-Hyperspec is easily attached to a tripod and a rotational stage so that the necessary movement (which ordinarily would come from a UAV) instead happens from a ‘stationary’ platform. These deployments are sometimes called ‘point-and-stare’ or ‘pan-and-tilt,’ and it represents a means of accomplishing movement-based hyperspectral imaging on the ground.

Headwall's booth at Photonics West (Moscone Convention Center, San Francisco) is 2506. Hope to see you there!

Tags: hyperspectral imaging, Headwall Photonics, Remote Sensing, UAS, UAV, Leica-Geosystems